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Membrane Vesicles Nucleate Mineralo-Protein Nanoparticles and Induce Carbonate Apatite
Schematic model illustrating the composition of MVs and the seeding of mineralo-organic NPs by MVs. (A) Illustration representing a MV isolated from serum in the present study. Our results indicate that the isolated MVs consist of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing ALP, TNFR1, CD63, albumin, fetuin-A, and apo-A1. PS was found in the outer phospholipid layer of MVs. (B) Calcium ions present in cell culture medium and body fluids may bind to PS exposed on the surface of MVs and induce mineral precipitation. With time, mineralization of MVs may further increase and lead to the formation of fully mineralized mineralo-organic NPs similar to the so-called NB. Molecules present in serum and body fluids may promote the crystallization of the minera particles and produce mineral precipitates similar to those observed previously in human calcified tissues.
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